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What are Networking Protocols
A protocol is a standard that governs the rules for setting up a data connection, communicating between endpoints once the connection is set, and transferring data between those endpoints. Network protocols are usually used to detect the physical properties of both the sending and the target nodes, as well as whether the target node is available. Once the connection endpoints are determined, a protocol will handle the initial communication between the endpoints as well as the rules for the connection. The protocol will identify how each end will know where a data stream starts and stops, what format it will be sent and received in, and what to do with the data if there are any problems with the transfer.
Here is a short list of a few of the more common protocols:
- File Transfer Protocol (FTP) — FTP is used to transfer large amounts of data from one node to another. The FTP protocol uses an FTP server to serve files to an FTP client.
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) — HTTP is the foundation of data communication for the World Wide Web. HTTP uses a server (e.g., a website) to serve the clients (end users) data the clients have requested via a web browser.
- Hypertext Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer (HTTPS) — HTTPS is an enhancement to HTTP that allows secure sessions over Secure Socket Layer (SSL). These sessions provide adequate security for private transactions on the World Wide Web.
- Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4) — IMAP4 is a protocol that allows a client to connect to and retrieve e-mail from an e-mail server.
- Internet Protocol (IP) — IP is a standard that allows for the transfer of data between nodes that are connected on a network. Each node within an IP network has a unique address that identifies it for the purpose of locating and sharing data between nodes.
- Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) — POP3 is a protocol that allows an e-mail client to connect to an e-mail server and retrieve mail that is destined for that client.
- Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) — SMTP is a protocol that allows a network user to send and receive e-mail.
- Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) — SNMP is a protocol that allows for the sharing of management data on a network. SNMP allows network administrators the ability to quickly access network nodes to monitor performance, troubleshoot, baseline, and ensure that the network is capable of addressing the needs of the organization.
- Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) — TCP is a protocol that connects end users with one another and ensures the integrity of the exchanged data.
- Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) — TFTP is a protocol that is a simpler form of FTP. FTP is one of the most commonly used file transfer protocols on the Internet and within private networks. FTP control is handled on TCP port 21 and its data transfer can use TCP port 20 as well as dynamic ports depending on the specific configuration.
- User Datagram Protocol (UDP) — UDP is a protocol that connects end users to one another and transfers datagrams, but does not ensure the integrity of the datagrams.
- Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) — DHCP is used on networks that do not use static IP address assignment. A DHCP server can be set up by an administrator or engineer with a poll of addresses that are available for assignment. When a client device is turned on it can request an IP address from the local DHCP server, if there is an available address in the pool it can be assigned to the device.
That’s it! Yes, we know, there are many many other protocols that we can add – and if you think we should include another in this tutorial, then please drop a comment below, we’d love to get your feedback.
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