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What is Twisted Pair Wiring
Twisted pair wiring typically had been previously used to wire phones to the telephone network. A twisted pair consists of two wires twisted together over their length. The twisted geometry reduces electromagnetic leakage (i.e., cross talk) with nearby wires. Twisted pairs can run several kilometers without the need for amplifiers. The quality of a twisted pair (carrying capacity) depends on the number of twists per inch.
About 1990, it became possible to send 10 Mbps (for Ethernet) over unshielded twisted pair (UTP). Higher speeds are also possible if the cable and connector parameters are carefully implemented.
One type of unshielded twisted pair is category 3 UTP. It consists of four pairs of twisted pair surrounded by a sheath. It has a bandwidth of 16 MHz. Many offices used to be wired with category 3 wiring.
Category 5 UTP has more twists per inch. Thus, it has a higher bandwidth (100 MHz). Newer standards include category 6 versions (250 MHz or more) and category 7 versions (600 MHz or more). Category 8 at 1600Ė2000 MHz for 40 Gbps Ethernet is under development.
A Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) has a fine wire mesh surrounding the wires to protect the transmission; an Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) do not. Shielded cable is used in older telephone networks, as well as network and data communications to reduce outside interference.
Other types of cables used for LANs include coaxial cables and fiber optic cables.
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